An Overview of Litigation in Romania

An Overview of Litigation in Romania: Rules, Laws and Regulations Explained

​Litigation is the process of taking someone to court in order to resolve a legal dispute.

If you have been wronged and are looking to sue someone in Romania, it is important to understand the rules, laws, and regulations that apply in this country.

This overview will provide you with some basic information about litigation in Romania so that you can make informed decisions about your case.

The first step in any litigation case is to determine whether you have grounds for a lawsuit.

In Romania, there are three general categories of cases that can be brought to court: civil cases, criminal cases, and administrative cases.

  • Civil cases typically involve disputes between two private parties, such as a contract dispute or a personal injury claim.
  • Criminal cases are brought by the state against an individual accused of committing a crime.
  • Administrative cases are usually brought by the government against a private party, such as a company that is violating environmental regulations.

Once you have determined that you have grounds for a lawsuit, the next step is to find a lawyer who can represent you in court.

It is important to find a Romanian lawyer who is familiar with the specific type of case that you are bringing, as well as the Romanian legal system.

Once you have retained a lawyer, they will begin gathering evidence and preparing your case for trial.

If your case goes to trial, it will be heard by a panel of judges.

The number of judges on the panel will depend on the type of case being heard.

In most civil and criminal cases, there will be three judges.

In administrative cases, there may be only one judge or a panel of multiple judges.

The judges will hear arguments from both sides and then render a decision.

If the decision is in your favor, the other party will be ordered to take some kind of action, such as paying damages or returning property.

If the decision is not in your favor, you may appeal the decision to a higher court.

Litigation can be a lengthy and complicated process, so it is important to understand the rules and regulations that apply in Romania before beginning your case.

By understanding the basics of the Romanian legal system, you can make informed decisions about your case and choose the best course of action for your particular situation.

Types of Litigation in Romania

​There are many different types of litigation that can take place in Romania.

Some of the most common include:

1. Civil Litigation: This type of litigation involves one party suing another for damages that have been inflicted. This can be in the form of physical or emotional damages, financial damages, or even property damage.

2. Commercial Litigation: This type of litigation occurs when two businesses are in dispute with one another. This can be over contracts, disagreements on products or services, or even intellectual property disputes.

3. Criminal Litigation: This type of litigation is brought about when someone has been accused of committing a crime. This can be anything from a minor offense to a major felony.

4. Employment Litigation: This type of litigation occurs when there is a dispute between an employer and an employee. This can be over things like wages, hours, working conditions, or even wrongful termination.

5. Family Litigation: This type of litigation is usually between family members who are in dispute with one another. This can be over things like child custody, visitation rights, or even property division.

6. Personal Injury Litigation: This type of litigation occurs when someone has been injured due to the negligence of another person. This can be in the form of a car accident, slip and fall, or even medical malpractice.

7. Real Estate Litigation: This type of litigation occurs when there is a dispute over real estate. This can be over things like boundary disputes, easements, or even title disputes.

8. Probate litigation: This type of litigation occurs when there is a dispute over someone’s will or estate. This can be over things like the distribution of assets, the validity of the will, or even challenges to the executor of the estate.

No matter what type of litigation is taking place, it is always important to have an experienced Romanian attorney by your side.

Litigation can be a complex and time-consuming process, so it is important to have someone who knows the ins and outs of the legal system.

If you are involved in any type of litigation in Romania, contact an experienced attorney today.

Courts and Litigation in Romania

​In Romania, the court system is divided into four levels:

  • the first instance courts,
  • the appellate courts,
  • the high court of cassation and justice, and
  • the constitutional court.


  • The first instance courts are the courts of general jurisdiction and are divided into three categories: the county courts, the regional courts, and the tribunals.

The county courts have territorial jurisdiction over a specific county, while the regional courts have territorial jurisdiction over a group of counties. The tribunals are specialized courts that have jurisdiction over certain types of cases, such as labor disputes or cases involving minors.

  • The appellate courts are the second level of the Romanian court system.

They consist of the court of appeal and the high court of cassation and justice. The court of appeal hears appeals from the first instance courts, while the high court of cassation and justice hears appeals from the appellate courts.

  • The constitutional court is the highest level of the Romanian court system and is responsible for ensuring that the Constitution is respected.

Litigation in Romania is governed by the Civil Procedure Code, which regulates all aspects of civil procedure, from filing a lawsuit to executing a judgment.

The Code is divided into five parts:

  • general provisions,
  • procedural principles,
  • parties to the proceedings,
  • special proceedings, and
  • execution of judgments.

Under Romanian law, anyone who has been harmed by another person or entity has the right to sue for damages.

If the person or entity against whom the suit is filed is located in Romania, the case will be heard by a Romanian court.

If the person or entity is located in another country, the case may be heard by a Romanian court if Romania has a bilateral or multilateral agreement with that country.

Romanian law recognizes two types of damages: pecuniary damages and non-pecuniary damages.

Pecuniary damages are those that can be quantified in monetary terms, such as loss of income or medical expenses.

Non-pecuniary damages are those that cannot be quantified in monetary terms, such as pain and suffering.

Starting a Litigation Case in Romania

​If you are thinking about starting a litigation case in Romania, there are a few things you should know.

Romania is a civil law country, which means that the legal system is primarily based on written laws, as opposed to common law, which relies more on judicial precedent.

This can make it a little bit more difficult to sue someone in Romania, but it is not impossible.

There are a few steps you will need to take in order to start your litigation case in Romania.

First, you will need to find a lawyer who is licensed to practice in Romania and who has experience with litigation cases.

It is important to find a lawyer who you feel comfortable working with and who you feel confident will represent you well.

Once you have found a lawyer, you will need to gather all of the evidence you have to support your case.

This may include witness statements, documents, photographs, or anything else that will help to prove your case.

Once you have gathered all of your evidence, your lawyer will draft a complaint and file it with the court.

After your complaint has been filed, the court will set a date for a hearing.

At the hearing, both sides will present their evidence and arguments.

The judge will then make a decision on the case. If the judge decides in your favor, you will be awarded damages.

If the judge decides against you, you may appeal the decision.

Starting a litigation case in Romania can be a bit of a challenge, but it is not impossible.

With the help of an experienced lawyer, you can gather the evidence you need to support your case and present your argument in court.

Romania Litigation Process and Procedures

​The Romanian legal system is based on the civil law tradition.

This means that laws are codified and judges are bound by legal precedent.

The main source of law is the Constitution of Romania, which was adopted in 1991.

Romania is a member of the European Union and its legal system is therefore subject to the influence of European Union law.

The Romanian court system is hierarchical.

  • The courts of first instance are the courts of law, which hear criminal and civil cases.
  • The courts of appeal are the tribunals, which hear appeals from the courts of law.
  • The High Court of Cassation and Justice is the court of final appeal and review.
  • The Constitutional Court of Romania is the body competent to adjudicate on the constitutionality of laws and regulations.

Romania has a dualist legal system, which means that international treaties are not automatically incorporated into domestic law.

However, once a treaty is ratified by Romania, it becomes part of Romanian law.

The Romanian legal system recognizes the principle of judicial independence.

Judges are appointed by the President of Romania, on the proposal of the Superior Council of Magistrates, and they can only be removed from office by presidential decree, for reasons of misconduct.

The Romanian judiciary is divided into three types of courts:

  • civil courts,
  • criminal courts and
  • military courts.

Civil courts deal with disputes between private individuals, companies or other legal entities.

These disputes can be either over lawsuits personal in nature, such as divorce or child custody cases, or they can be about money, property or contracts.

Criminal courts deal with cases involving alleged violations of the criminal law.

These cases can be either misdemeanors, which are less serious offenses punishable by a fine or up to 60 days in jail, or felonies, which are more serious offenses punishable by a prison sentence of more than one year.

Military courts have jurisdiction over cases involving members of the Romanian armed forces.

These cases can involve alleged violations of military discipline or crimes committed while on active duty.

The Romanian legal system provides for the right to a fair trial.

This includes the right to counsel, the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty, the right to a public trial and the right to appeal a decision to a higher court.

If you are involved in a legal dispute in Romania, it is important to understand the Romanian litigation process and procedures.

This process can be complex and time-consuming, so it is important to seek the advice of a qualified Romanian lawyer.

Representing Yourself vs. Hiring a Lawyer in Romania

​There are many factors to consider when deciding whether to represent yourself or hire a lawyer in Romania.

The most important factor is the severity of your charge.

If you are facing a serious charge, it is probably in your best interest to hire a lawyer. If you are facing a less serious charge, you may be able to represent yourself.

Another factor to consider is your financial situation.

If you can afford to hire a lawyer, it may be worth it to do so. If you cannot afford a lawyer, you may have no choice but to represent yourself.

If you decide to represent yourself, there are a few things you should keep in mind.

First, you will be held to the same standard as a lawyer.

This means you will need to know the law and procedures just as well as a lawyer would.

Second, it is important to be respectful to the court and to those around you.

Third, you should be prepared for the possibility that you may lose your case.

If you decide to hire a lawyer, you should make sure to choose one that is experienced in Romanian law.

You should also make sure to ask for references and to meet with the lawyer before hiring them.

Possible Outcomes of Litigation in Romania

​When considering whether to sue someone in Romania, it is important to weigh the potential outcomes of the litigation.

Though no legal case is ever guaranteed, understanding the possible outcomes of your case can help you make an informed decision about whether or not to move forward with legal action.

The first potential outcome is, of course, that you could win your case.

If the court finds in your favor, you will be awarded whatever damages or relief you are seeking.

This is the best-case scenario and, naturally, what everyone who decides to sue hopes for.

However, it is also possible that you could lose your case.

If the court does not find in your favor, you will not be awarded any damages or relief and will likely have to pay the legal fees of the person or entity you sued.

This is obviously not the ideal outcome, but it is a possibility that must be considered.

There is also a third potential outcome, which is that the case could be settled out of court.

This means that you and the person or entity you are suing come to an agreement outside of court and avoid having to go through the litigation process. This can be a good outcome if you are able to reach an agreement that is satisfactory to both parties.

Of course, these are not the only possible outcomes of litigation in Romania.

Every case is different and the specific circumstances will ultimately determine the outcome.

However, these are some of the most common possibilities that you should be aware of before deciding to sue someone in Romania.

Challenges of Litigation in Romania

​Litigation is the process of taking legal action against another person or company.

It can be a long and difficult process, especially in a country like Romania where the legal system is not as developed as in other parts of the world.

There are many challenges that you will face when litigating in Romania, but you can overcome them.

One of the biggest challenges is the language barrier.

Many court documents are only available in Romanian, so you will need to hire a translator if you do not speak the language. This can be expensive and it can be hard to find a translator you trust.

The legal system in Romania is also very different from what you are used to in the other countries. The court system is much slower and it can take years for your case to be finally resolved. This can be very frustrating, but you need to be patient.

Another challenge you may face is the lack of reliable witnesses. In Romania, it is not uncommon for witnesses to be paid off by the party they are testifying against. This makes it very difficult to get accurate information about what really happened.

Despite all these challenges, it is still possible to win your case in Romania.

You just need to be prepared for the difficulties you may face and make sure you have a good Romanian lawyer on your side.

Mediation and Alternative Dispute Resolution in Romania

​Today, mediation and alternative dispute resolution are becoming more popular in Romania.

Mediation is a process where two parties meet with a neutral third party to try to reach an agreement. This is an effective way to resolve disputes without going to court.

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is a process where two parties try to reach an agreement without going to court. This can be done through mediation, arbitration, or another process. ADR is often faster and cheaper than going to court.

There are many benefits to mediation and ADR.

  • Mediation can help parties resolve their differences without the need for a lengthy and expensive court battle.
  • It can also help parties to better understand each other’s position and to come up with creative solutions that they may not have thought of on their own.
  • In addition, mediation and ADR can help to preserve relationships. This is especially important in cases where the parties will need to continue to work together after the dispute is resolved, such as in business or family matters.

If you are involved in a dispute, you should consider mediation or ADR as a way to resolve the issue.

 By contacting a local lawyer or legal aid organization, individuals can get the help they need to protect their rights.

Litigation in Romania- FAQ

1. What is litigation and how does it work in Romania?

Litigation refers to the legal process used to settle disputes through a court of law in Romania.

The Romanian legal system follows a civil law framework, and litigation involves the resolution of civil or commercial matters through the courts.

It is governed by the Romanian Civil Procedure Code, which sets out the procedural rules for court cases.

2. Can foreign individuals or companies engage in litigation in Romania?

Yes, foreign individuals or companies can engage in litigation in Romania.

The Romanian legal system provides for the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, ensuring that a legal decision obtained in another country can be recognized and enforced in Romania.

However, specific procedures and requirements must be followed to initiate litigation as a foreign entity.

3. What is the role of a law firm in litigation?

A law firm plays a crucial role in litigation by providing legal representation and guidance to individuals or companies involved in a legal dispute.

They assist with preparing the necessary legal documents, advising on the applicable Romanian law, representing clients in court, negotiating settlements, and ensuring their clients’ best interests are protected throughout the litigation process.

4. How can I file an appeal in Romania?

To file an appeal in Romania, you need to follow the procedures set out in the Romanian Civil Procedure Code.

Generally, you will need to submit a written document called a “statement of appeal” to the relevant court within a specific timeframe. The appeal should clearly state the grounds on which you are challenging the court decision and provide supporting arguments and evidence.

5. What happens if I lose a court case in Romania?

If you lose a court case in Romania, you may be required to comply with the court decision, which usually includes fulfilling certain obligations or paying damages to the winning party.

The losing party may also be responsible for paying the legal fees and expenses incurred by both parties throughout the litigation process, unless otherwise determined by the court.

6. What is the role of the Court of Appeal and the High Court in Romania?

The Court of Appeal and the High Court are higher-level courts in Romania that hear appeals from lower courts and have the authority to review and decide on matters of law.

The Court of Appeal is the first instance of appeal, and its decisions are mandatory.