Archives August 2023

Lawyers in Romania

Lawyers in Romania: Navigating the Romanian Legal System

The Role of Lawyers in Romania is to provide legal representation to clients in court proceedings and offer legal advice on various legal matters such as contracts, property rights, family law, criminal law, and more.

Romania has a rich history and culture, and its legal system is no exception.

The modern legal system in Romania dates back to the mid-19th century and is based on French, Belgian, Italian, and German models.

As Romania is part of the EU, there is also heavy influence from EU law.

The judiciary of Romania is organized as a hierarchical system of courts.


The Role of Lawyers in Romania

The Romanian National Union of Bar Associations (UNBR) is the central body responsible for the profession of lawyers in Romania. It is a legal person of public interest comprising all Bar Associations in Romania.

The UNBR ensures qualified exercise of the right of defense, professional competence and discipline, and the protection of the dignity and honor of lawyers who are members of the union.

The legal profession in Romania is regulated by Law no. 51/1995 on the organization and practice of the lawyer’s profession.

Romanian lawyers are called “Avocati”. A large percentage of lawyers in Romania are sole practitioners and operate as one single lawyer.

A lawyer in Romania must be a member of the Romanian Bar Association (Uniunea Nationala a Barourilor din Romania). In Romania, you are qualified as an ~Avocati` after you pass your degree and exams.

The role of lawyers in the Romanian justice system is to provide legal representation to clients in court proceedings.

Lawyers also provide legal advice to clients on various legal matters such as contracts, property rights, family law, criminal law, and more.


Qualifications and Education for Lawyers in Romania:

Becoming a lawyer in Romania requires dedication and a rigorous educational journey.

Prospective lawyers must complete a comprehensive law school education, covering topics such as constitutional law, civil law, and criminal law.

Law schools and legal education in Romania are regulated by Law no. 238/2004 on the organization and functioning of higher education. There are currently 12 law schools in Romania that offer degrees in law.

After graduation, aspiring lawyers must pass the bar exam and obtain a license to practice law.

Moreover, continuing legal education programs ensure that lawyers stay up-to-date with the latest legal developments.


Responsibilities of Lawyers in Romania:

Lawyers in Romania fulfill a wide range of roles and responsibilities, catering to diverse legal needs.

They provide legal representation and advocacy, supporting clients throughout the legal process.

Whether it’s a civil dispute, criminal case, or family matter, lawyers stand by their clients, fighting for their rights and interests.

Moreover, lawyers offer legal advice and counseling, helping individuals and businesses understand their rights and obligations under the law.

They also play a crucial role in drafting and negotiating contracts, ensuring that agreements are legally sound and protect their clients’ interests.

In cases of disputes, lawyers are skilled in litigation and dispute resolution, using their legal expertise to seek fair resolutions.

In the corporate world, lawyers provide a range of legal services, including mergers and acquisitions, compliance, and contract review.

They also handle criminal defense and prosecution, tirelessly working to ensure justice is served.

When it comes to matters of family law and estate planning, lawyers offer guidance on divorce, child custody, and wills.

Additionally, lawyers specializing in intellectual property and technology law protect the rights of creators and innovators.


Ethical Standards and Professional Conduct:

Romanian Lawyers adhere to a strict code of ethics and professional conduct.

When it comes to the role of lawyers in Romania, maintaining ethical standards and professionalism is essential.

Confidentiality and attorney-client privilege are paramount, ensuring clients can trust their lawyers with sensitive information.

The Romanian Lawyer has a duty of loyalty and professional responsibility, acting in the best interests of his clients while avoiding conflicts of interest.

Upholding these ethical standards is vital for maintaining the integrity and credibility of the Romanian legal profession.


Challenges Faced by Lawyers in Romania:

Despite their pivotal role, lawyers in Romania face several challenges.

Backlogs of cases and court delays can hinder access to justice for many individuals.

Furthermore, marginalized communities may struggle to access legal services due to financial constraints or lack of awareness.

Overcoming these challenges requires ongoing legal reforms, increased transparency, and improved access to justice in Romania.


The Future of the Legal Profession in Romania:

Looking ahead, the legal profession in Romania is poised for transformation. Embracing technology and digitalization will streamline legal processes and improve efficiency.

Enhancing legal education and training programs will ensure lawyers are well-equipped to meet the evolving demands of the legal landscape.

Furthermore, strengthening the rule of law and judicial independence will foster trust and confidence in the legal system.

EU law has had a significant impact on the Romanian legal system. As a member of the EU, Romania is subject to EU law which has influenced many areas of Romanian law including competition law, consumer protection law, environmental law, and more.

As Romania continues to be a member of the EU, it will continue to be subject to EU law and its influence on the Romanian legal system will continue to grow.

Lawyers in Romania play a vital role in upholding justice, protecting rights, and guiding individuals and businesses through the complexities of the legal system.

With their expertise and dedication, they provide invaluable services that shape the course of legal proceedings.


contract breaches in Romania

Contract Breaches in Romania

Understanding Contract Breaches in Romania: What You Need to Know

Contract breaches can be frustrating and lead to potential legal disputes.

In this article, we will dive into the topic of contract breaches in Romania to help you understand your rights and options when dealing with such situations.

What is a Contract Breach?

A contract breach simply means that one party fails to fulfill their obligations as outlined in a legally binding agreement.

It can involve various scenarios, such failing to deliver goods or services, not meeting project deadlines, or violating specific terms and conditions stated in the contract.

When a breach of contract occurs under the stipulations of the Romanian Law, the non-breaching party may seek legal remedies to address the situation appropriately.

Types of Contract Breaches in Romania

In Romania, contract breaches can be classified into two main types: material breaches and minor breaches.

  • Material Breaches:

A material breach is a significant violation of the contract that goes to the core of the agreement.

It occurs when the breaching party’s actions or omissions substantially prevent the other party from receiving the benefits they were entitled to under the contract.

Material breaches often give rise to substantial legal remedies for the non-breaching party.

  • Minor Breaches:

A minor breach, also known as a partial breach, refers to a lesser violation of the contract’s terms.

While it does not fundamentally undermine the purpose of the agreement, it still represents a failure to perform certain obligations. In such cases, the non-breaching party may be entitled to seek limited remedies, such as damages or specific performance.

Legal Remedies for Contract Breaches in Romania

When a contract breach occurs in Romania, the non-breaching party has several legal remedies available to properly address the situation. Let’s explore some of the common remedies:

  • Damages:

The non-breaching party may seek monetary compensation to cover any financial losses incurred due to the breach. The damages aim to put the injured party in the position they would have been in had the breach not occurred.

  • Specific Performance:

The non-breaching party may request the court to order the breaching party to fulfill their contractual obligations as originally agreed. This remedy is typically sought when the subject matter of the contract is unique.

  • Contract Termination:

In severe cases, the non-breaching party may choose to terminate the contract, releasing both parties from their obligations. However, reviewing the contract terms and consulting legal counsel is crucial before termination.

  • Seeking Legal Assistance:

Dealing with contract breaches in Romania can be complex, so seeking legal assistance from an experienced Romanian attorney is advisable to protect your rights and interests.

Minimizing Contract Breaches in Romania

While understanding remedies is essential, it’s equally important to take preventive measures to minimize the chances of a breach occurring in Romania in the first place:

  • Draft Clear and Precise Contracts: Ensure contracts clearly define the rights, obligations and expectations of all parties involved to avoid disputes.
  • Perform Due Diligence: Research the other party thoroughly before entering into a contract to reduce the risk of unreliable partners.
  • Include Dispute Resolution Clauses: Consider including mediation or arbitration clauses to resolve disputes efficiently, without going to court.
  • Regularly Review and Update Contracts: Review contracts periodically to ensure they reflect any changes in laws or regulations that may impact the agreement.

In summary, understanding contract breaches in Romania is key to protecting your rights and navigating disputes.

Seeking legal assistance from qualified Romanian attorneys ensures you can address any contract breaches effectively, while preventive measures help minimize breach occurrences.

Debt Collection in Romania

Debt Collection in Romania: How to Protect Your Interests and Rights as a Creditor

Debt Collection in Romania: Protect Your Interests and Rights as a Creditor

Debt collection in Romania is the process of pursuing and collecting unpaid debts from delinquent debtors, either through extrajudicial or judicial means. It is a vital part of credit management and risk mitigation for any business.

Sometimes your customers or clients may fail to pay their invoices on time, or even refuse to pay at all. This can cause serious cash flow problems, damage your reputation, and affect your relationships with other stakeholders. If you are a business owner or manager, you know how important it is to get paid for your products or services. That’s why you need to know how to recover your debts effectively and efficiently.

However, debt recovery can also be challenging and complex, especially if you are dealing with debtors in a different country, such as debt collection in Romania. Romania is a member of the European Union, but it has its own legal system, culture, and business practices that may differ from yours. You need to be aware of the regulations, procedures, and best practices for debt recovery in Romania, as well as the potential risks and opportunities involved.

In this article, we will provide you with the ultimate guide to debt recovery in Romania. We will cover the following topics:

  • The legal framework and regulations for debt recovery in Romania
  • The extrajudicial phase of debt recovery in Romania
  • The judicial phase of debt recovery in Romania
  • The best practices and tips for debt recovery in Romania

Debt collection in Romania: By the end of this article, you will have a better understanding of how to recover your debts in Romania effectively and efficiently. You will also learn how to avoid common pitfalls and mistakes, and how to protect your interests and rights as a creditor.

The Legal Framework and Regulations for Debt Collection in Romania

The first thing you need to know about debt collection in Romania is the legal framework and regulations that govern it. There are several sources of law that apply to debt recovery in Romania, such as:

  • The Romanian Civil Code: This is the main source of law for civil matters, including contracts, obligations, and liabilities. It defines the rights and obligations of creditors and debtors, as well as the remedies available for breach of contract or non-payment of debts.
  • The Romanian Civil Procedure Code: This is the main source of law for civil litigation, including debt collection lawsuits. It regulates the jurisdiction, competence, procedure, and enforcement of court judgments and orders.
  • The Romanian  Insolvency Law: This is the main source of law for insolvency and bankruptcy cases, including those involving debtors who are unable to pay their debts. It establishes the conditions, procedure, and effects of insolvency proceedings, as well as the rights and obligations of creditors, debtors, and insolvency practitioners.
  • The Romanian Consumer Protection Law: This is the main source of law for consumer protection matters, including those involving consumer debts. It sets out the rules and principles for fair trade practices, consumer rights, and consumer disputes.

These sources of law are supplemented by various secondary legislation, such as decrees, orders, regulations, guidelines, and codes of conduct issued by relevant Romanian authorities or professional bodies.

As a creditor, you need to be familiar with these sources of law and how they apply to your specific case. You also need to comply with them when pursuing your debts in Romania.

Failure to do so may result in legal consequences, such as invalidity of your claim, dismissal of your lawsuit, or sanctions by the court or regulators.

The Extrajudicial Phase of Debt Collection in Romania

The second thing you need to know about debt collection in Romania is the extrajudicial phase. This is the phase where you try to recover your debts without involving the courts or other formal institutions. It is also known as the amicable phase or the pre-litigation phase.

The extrajudicial phase of debt recovery in Romania usually involves the following steps:

  • Sending reminders: This is the first step you should take when your debtor fails to pay their invoice on time. You should send them a friendly reminder by email or phone call, informing them about their overdue payment and requesting them to pay as soon as possible. You should also keep a record of your communication with them.
  • Sending demand letters: This is the second step you should take if your debtor does not respond to your reminders or still refuses to pay. You should send them a formal demand letter by registered mail or courier service, stating the amount and details of your claim, the deadline for payment (usually 15 days), and the consequences of non-payment (such as interest charges, legal action, or reporting to credit bureaus). You should also attach a copy of your invoice and any relevant documents (such as contracts or agreements) to support your claim.
  • Sending notices of default: This is the third step you should take if your debtor does not comply with your demand letter or still disputes your claim. You should send them a notice of default by registered mail or courier service, declaring that they are in default of their obligation and that you reserve your right to take further action against them (such as initiating a lawsuit or an insolvency proceeding). You should also inform them about the possibility of reaching an amicable settlement or a payment plan, if you are willing to do so.
  • Negotiating with the debtor: This is the fourth and final step you should take before resorting to judicial action. You should try to negotiate with your debtor in good faith and reach a mutually acceptable solution, such as a partial payment, a discount, a waiver, or a rescheduling of the debt. You should also document any agreement or arrangement you make with your debtor in writing and have it signed by both parties.

The extrajudicial phase of debt recovery in Romania is usually faster, cheaper, and more flexible than the judicial phase. It also helps you preserve your relationship with your debtor and avoid unnecessary conflicts. However, it also depends on the cooperation and willingness of your debtor to pay their debts. If your debtor is unresponsive, dishonest, or insolvent, you may need to escalate your case to the judicial phase.

The Judicial Phase of Debt Collection in Romania

The third thing you need to know about debt collection in Romania is the judicial phase. This is the phase where you involve the courts or other formal institutions to recover your debts. It is also known as the contentious phase or the litigation phase.

The judicial phase of debt recovery in Romania usually involves the following steps:

  • Filing a lawsuit: This is the first step you should take if you decide to pursue your claim through legal action. You should file a lawsuit against your debtor at the competent court, depending on the amount and nature of your claim. You should also pay the court fees and attach all the relevant documents and evidence to support your claim.
  • Obtaining a court order: This is the second step you should take after filing your lawsuit. You should wait for the court to examine your case and issue a court order, either granting or rejecting your claim. The court order may be issued after a hearing or without a hearing, depending on the type and complexity of your case.
  • Enforcing the court order: This is the third and final step you should take after obtaining a court order. You should enforce the court order against your debtor, either by yourself or with the help of a bailiff or an enforcement agent. You should also monitor the enforcement process and collect your debt from your debtor’s assets or income.

The judicial phase of debt recovery in Romania is usually more effective, reliable, and enforceable than the extrajudicial phase. It also helps you protect your interests and rights as a creditor and obtain legal recognition for your claim. However, it also involves more time, money, and resources than the extrajudicial phase. It also exposes you to more risks and uncertainties, such as procedural delays, appeals, counterclaims, or insolvency proceedings.

The Best Practices and Tips for Debt Recovery in Romania

The fourth and final thing you need to know about debt recovery in Romania is the best practices and tips for debt collection in Romania. These are some of the recommendations and suggestions that can help you recover your debts in Romania more effectively and efficiently:

  • Choose the right Romanian debt collection law office or Romanian attorney: If you need professional assistance or representation for debt recovery in Romania, you should choose a reputable and experienced debt collection attorney near you that can handle your case properly. You should also check their credentials, references, fees, and success rate before hiring them.
  • Use online platforms and tools: If you want to save time and money for debt recovery in Romania, you should use online platforms and tools that can facilitate your communication, documentation, and verification of your claims. For example, you can use e-invoicing, e-signature, e-delivery, e-payment, or e-verification services that are available in Romania.
  • Maintain good communication and documentation: If you want to avoid misunderstandings and disputes for debt collection in Romania, you should maintain good communication and documentation with your debtor throughout the process. You should also keep copies of all your correspondence, invoices, contracts, agreements, receipts, and evidence for future reference.
  • Avoid common pitfalls and mistakes: If you want to prevent problems and complications for debt recovery in Romania, you should avoid common pitfalls and mistakes that can jeopardize your claim or lawsuit. For example, you should not send abusive or threatening messages to your debtor, ignore their legitimate complaints or objections, violate their privacy or data protection rights, or act in bad faith or dishonesty.

Debt collection in Romania can be challenging and complex, but it can also be rewarding and satisfying if you know how to do it properly. By following this ultimate guide to debt recovery in Romania, you will be able to recover your debts effectively and efficiently.

Child custody and support in Romania

Child Custody and Support in Romanian Divorces: What You Need to Know

This guide covers the key things you need to know about child custody and child support when getting divorced in Romania.

If you’re getting divorced in Romania, it’s important to understand how child-related matters are handled so you can protect your rights and your children’s best interests.

Going through a divorce is difficult enough without having to worry about child custody and support.


Determining Custody in Romanian Divorces

When a couple with children divorces in Romania, custody decisions are made based on the best interests of the child.

Here are some things to keep in mind:

The Court decides custody

The Romanian Court will make the final custody determination for minor children (under age 18) in a divorce. Parents can make custody proposals or agreements, but the court has to approve them.


Joint custody is preferred

Romanian law prefers that both parents retain custody rights after a divorce.

Courts will generally award joint physical custody with the child splitting time between both parents’ homes, unless there are compelling reasons not to.


Factors considered for custody

Courts look at various factors when deciding custody, including:


  • The child’s existing living situation and attachment to each parent
  • Each parent’s ability to care for the child’s needs
  • Any history of domestic violence, abuse or neglect
  • The child’s preferences if they are mature enough to express a reasonable opinion
  • Each parent’s willingness to cooperate and allow access to the child

The court will order an investigation to evaluate these factors.

Custody evaluators will interview parties and make recommendations to the court.


Modifying custody orders

Custody orders can be modified later on if there are substantial changes in circumstances affecting the child’s well-being. A parent has to petition the court and show that alteration of the existing order is in the child’s best interests.


How Child Support Works in Romanian Divorces

Child support ensures that both parents continue meeting the financial needs of children after a divorce.

Here are key things to know about child support in Romania:


  • Both parents share responsibility

Nevertheless, under Romania’s Civil Code, both parents have an obligation to support their children financially, whether married, separated or divorced. The parent who doesn’t have physical custody typically pays child support.


  • Courts determine support amounts

Courts will issue child support orders as part of the divorce judgment.

The amounts are set based on factors like both parents’ incomes, the child’s expenses and needs, and the custody arrangement.


  • Support is owed until adulthood

In Romania, the duty to pay child support continues until the child reaches age 18. If the child continues approved education after 18, support can extend up to age 26.


Romanian Courts can enforce and modify support orders

If a parent fails to pay court-ordered child support, the other parent can petition the court to enforce the order.

Support amounts can also be modified later if financial circumstances change significantly.


Collecting support across borders

If the paying parent moves abroad, Romania’s membership in the EU allows using EU regulations to enforce the support order in other member countries. The Ministry of Justice offers assistance in these cross-border support cases.


Tips for Seeking Fair Custody and Support Terms

Here are some tips to help you negotiate fair custody and support outcomes in your Romanian divorce:


  • Consult a lawyer – Have an experienced Romanian family law attorney review your situation and represent your interests in custody and support matters.


  • Focus on your child’s best interests – Keep your child’s well-being the top priority and be prepared to compromise with your ex.


  • Document your position – Track details like your involvement in child-rearing, your income, and your child’s expenses to support your custody and support proposals.


  • Know your rights and obligations – Learn about Romanian legal standards for custody and support so you can advocate effectively for yourself and your child.


  • Be cooperative – The court will look favorably on parents who work together. Stay calm and reasonable in negotiations.


  • Get help if needed – If domestic violence is involved, contact support services so you can address safety concerns in your divorce.


Going through a divorce with children involved brings many challenges.

Understanding Romania’s custody and support laws allows you to obtain fair terms focused on your child’s best interests.

Remember that every situation is unique, so it’s important to seek legal advice from an experienced Romanian lawyer specializing in divorce law.


Limited Liability Company in Romania

How to Set Up a Limited Liability Company in Romania


Set up a Limited Liability Company in Romania

The most common forms of companies in Romania are the Limited Liability Company, the Joint Stock Company and Branches.

The Limited Liability Company in Romania has:

  • The share capital is divided into equal shares and, according to Law no. 31/1990, it cannot be less than 1 RON.
  • A Limited Liability Company in Romania may have between 1 and 50 shareholders.
  • The shareholders are liable in the limit of the contribution to the share capital.

Documents requested by the Trade Register for the company formation are:

  • Proof of reservation of company name
  • Articles of incorporation for the new Romanian company
  • Excerpts issued by the Trade Register where the shareholders are incorporated- legal entities (if they are)
  • The identity document of the shareholders natural persons (ID, Passport)
  • Passport or ID of the future director of the Romanian company
  • The document attesting the right of use over the space with destination of registered office ( e.g. lease agreement, property) and the ownership property documents
  • standard application.

Taxation of LLC company in Romania 2023

The tax rates used for micro-company income tax are:

  • 1% for micro-companies with one or more employees.
  • 3% for micro-companies with no employees.

The standard corporate income tax rate is 16%. Taxpayers that are carrying on activities such as gambling and nightclubs are either subject to 5% rate of the revenue obtained from such activities or to 16% of the taxable profit, depending on which is higher.

Romanian micro company tax regime starting with the first fiscal year and will remain under this tax regime if it meets all of the following criteria:

  • The maximum threshold of annual turnover is EUR 500.000.
  • Income generated from consultancy and management activities is not more than 20% of the annual turnover;
  • It does not carry out any banking, insurance and reassurance, capital markets, gambling or upstream oil & gas activities;
  • The share capital must be held by entities other than the state or the local authorities.

Moreover, the Romanian company has to pay to the state the imposed social contributions (pensions, health, work contribution) and the income tax for each employee.

There are no citizenship or residency requirements in order to register a Limited Company in Romania.

Our team of Romanian Lawyers can assist you for the set up of a LLC in Romania and our team of Romanian accountants can take on the fiscal set up of your newly formatted company.


Contact us for more info in order to set up a Romanian Limited Liability Company.