Romanian Legal System

Romanian Law: An Overview of the Legal System in Romania

Romanian Law: An Overview of the Legal System in Romania

In the Romanian Law, the legal system in Romania is based on the civil law system.

The main sources of law are the Constitution, treaties, and legislation.

The Constitution of Romania is the supreme law of the country and it determines the structure of the government and the rights of the citizens.

The Romanian legal system is divided into four main branches: administrative law, civil law, criminal law, and constitutional law.

Administrative law deals with the relations between the state and the individuals.

Civil law deals with the relations between individuals.

Criminal law deals with crimes and punishment. Constitutional law deals with the interpretation of the Constitution.

The judiciary in Romania is independent of the executive and legislative branches of government.

The highest court in Romania is the Supreme Court, which consists of nine judges appointed by the President for a six-year term.

There are three types of courts in Romania: criminal courts, civil courts, and administrative courts.

Criminal courts deal with crimes punishable by imprisonment for more than one year.

Civil courts deal with disputes between individuals or legal entities.

Administrative courts deal with disputes between individuals and the state.

Constitutional Law in Romania

​If you are thinking about doing business in Romania, it is important to understand the country’s constitutional law.

This area of law governs the relationships between the state and individuals, as well as the rights and duties of Romanian citizens.

The Constitution of Romania is the supreme law of the country and it is the foundation of the legal system.

All other laws must be in line with the Constitution and any law that goes against it is void.

The Constitution guarantees equality before the law for all citizens, regardless of their race, ethnicity, religion, or gender.

It also protects the right to life, liberty, and security of the person.

Everyone has the right to freedom of expression, assembly, and association. Romania is a secular state and everyone is free to practice their religion.

The Constitution provides for a separation of powers between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.

The Constitution requires that the judiciary be independent from the other branches of government.

Judges are appointed by the President on the proposal of the Superior Council of Magistrates, a body that is itself appointed by Parliament.

Romanian lawyers must have a law degree from a Romanian university and must pass a bar exam in order to be licensed to practice law.

Foreign lawyers may be admitted to practice law in Romania if they have a law degree from a foreign university and pass a Romanian language proficiency exam.

Criminal Law in Romania

The Romanian criminal justice system is based on the continental law system, and its procedures are regulated by the Romanian Code of Criminal Procedure.

The main body of criminal law is codified in the Penal Code.

The Penal Code sets out the general principles of criminal law, as well as the specific offenses that are defined as crimes.

The Code of Criminal Procedure regulates the procedures that are to be followed in a criminal trial.

In Romania, there are two types of courts that hear criminal cases:

  • the Courts of First Instance and
  • the Courts of Appeal.

The Courts of First Instance are competent to hear cases involving less serious offenses, while the Courts of Appeal are competent to hear cases involving more serious offenses.

A criminal case is initiated by the Prosecution Office, which is responsible for investigating crimes and bringing charges against suspected criminals.

The Prosecution Office is headed by the Prosecutor General, who is appointed by the President of Romania.

Once a criminal case has been initiated, the suspected offender is entitled to a fair trial.

This includes the right to a public trial, the right to be represented by a Romanian lawyer, and the right to appeal the decision of the court.

The sentence that is imposed on a convicted offender depends on the severity of the offence. For less serious offences, the offender may be given a suspended sentence or a fine.

For more serious offences, the offender may be given a prison sentence.

In addition to the criminal penalties that can be imposed, offenders may also be required to pay compensation to the victims of their crimes.

This can be ordered by the court as part of the sentence, or it can be agreed to by the parties in a civil settlement.

Compensation may be ordered for physical or psychological injuries that have been suffered by the victim, as well as for financial losses that have been incurred.

In some cases, the court may also order the offender to pay restitution to the victim.

This is an order to return property that has been stolen or damaged as a result of the crime.

Civil Law in Romania

​If you are thinking of expanding your business into Romania, it is important to have a basic understanding of the Romanian civil law system.

This system is based on the German civil law system and shares many similarities with other civil law systems in Europe.

However, there are also some important differences that you should be aware of.

The Romanian civil law system is codified, which means that the majority of laws are written down in a single code.

The code is divided into a number of different sections, each dealing with a different area of law.

The most important section for businesses is the one dealing with contract law.

Overall, the Romanian civil law system is relatively favorable to businesses.

However, there are some important differences that you should be aware of before expanding your business into Romania.

Corporate Law in Romania

​Since Romania joined the European Union in 2007, the corporate law landscape has been rapidly evolving.

The overall regulatory framework is still in the process of being harmonized with EU standards and best practices.

This can be seen as both an opportunity and a challenge for businesses operating in Romania.

One of the key areas of corporate law in Romania is labor law.

The Romanian Labor Code sets forth the rules and regulations governing the employer-employee relationship.

Some of the key areas regulated by the Labor Code include hiring, wages, working hours, and termination of employment.

Another important area of corporate law in Romania is tax law.

Romania has a variety of taxes that businesses must comply with, ranging from income tax to value added tax (VAT). businesses must carefully navigate the Romanian tax system in order to avoid penalties and ensure compliance.

Last but not least, businesses operating in Romania must also comply with EU and Romanian competition law.

This area of law regulates anti-competitive practices such as cartels and monopolies. businesses operating in Romania must be aware of these rules in order to avoid fines and other penalties.

Overall, the corporate law landscape in Romania is still evolving.

However, businesses operating in Romania can take advantage of this by staying up-to-date on the latest legal developments and ensuring compliance with all applicable laws and regulations.

Tax Law in Romania

​In Romania, the tax law is complex and ever-changing, which can make it difficult for businesses to comply.

One area that is particularly confusing is the rules around foreign businesses.

If you are a foreign business with employees in Romania, you need to be aware of the various tax and social security obligations that you have.

This includes withholding taxes from your employees’ salaries and paying into the Romanian social security system.

Failure to comply with these obligations can result in heavy fines, so it is important to make sure you are up-to-date with the latest changes.

Keeping track of the constantly changing law can be a challenge, so it is a good idea to hire a specialist tax advisor to help you ensure compliance.

If you are an employee in Romania, you should be aware that your employer is required to withhold taxes from your salary.

These taxes go towards your social security contributions and income tax.

The amount of tax you pay will depend on your salary and where you live in Romania.

In general, the tax rates are lower than in many other countries, which makes Romania an attractive place to work for foreigners.

However, it is important to remember that you are still required to pay taxes on any income you earn in Romania, even if it is from a foreign source.

This includes things like interest from a bank account or dividends from stocks.

If you are self-employed in Romania, you are responsible for paying your own taxes and social security contributions.

The good news is that there are a number of deductions and exemptions that you can claim to reduce your tax liability.

Keeping track of all the different tax rules and regulations can be a challenge, but it is important to make sure you are compliant. Non-compliance can result in heavy fines, so it is always better to be safe than sorry.

If you are thinking of doing business in Romania, or are already doing business in Romania, make sure you are up-to-date with the latest tax law changes.

This way you can avoid any penalties and make sure you are complying with all the relevant rules and regulations.

Labor and Employment Law in Romania

The Romanian labor law system is based on the Constitution of Romania, international labor conventions, and domestic legislation.

The Constitution of Romania provides for the right to work, the right to choose a job, the right to just and favorable working conditions, the right to rest and leisure, and the right to protection against unemployment.

The Labor Code is the main source of Romanian labor law.

The Code regulates the relations between employers and employees, including hiring, wages, working hours, safety and health, and termination of employment.

The Code also establishes the rights and obligations of trade unions and employers’ organizations. Trade unions have the right to negotiate collective agreements with employers and to represent employees in disputes before labor courts.

Employers’ organizations have the right to represent employers in collective bargaining and to provide assistance and advice to employers.

The Ministry of Labor and Social Protection is the government body responsible for labor law enforcement. The Ministry has inspectors who investigate complaints of violations of labor law and can impose penalties on employers who violate the law.

The labor courts are responsible for resolving disputes between employees and employers.

The courts have the power to order employers to pay back wages, reinstate employees who have been wrongfully terminated, and impose other remedies.

Romanian employee may be employed under an individual labor contract or a collective labor contract.

  • Individual labor contracts are between an employer and an individual employee and are the most common type of contract.
  • Collective labor contracts are between an employer and a trade union and cover all employees of a particular company or sector.

Employees have the right to receive a written copy of their labor contract.

The contract must be in the Romanian language and must contain certain information, such as the names of the parties, the duration of the contract, the nature of the work, the place of work, the wage, and the working hours.

Employees can only be required to work overtime if it is provided for in their contract or if they give their consent.

Overtime work must be compensated at a rate of at least 1.5 times the regular wage.

Employees are entitled to paid annual leave of 20 days. Employees who have worked for more than 10 years are entitled to 30 days of annual leave.

Regulatory and Compliance Law in Romania

​Much like in any other country, businesses in Romania must comply with a variety of regulatory and compliance laws.

Depending on the type of business, there may be different laws that apply.

For example, businesses that deal with food must comply with food safety laws, while businesses that manufacture products must comply with product safety laws.

There are also general business laws that all businesses must comply with, such as labor laws, tax laws, and environmental laws.

Failure to comply with any of these laws can result in costly fines or even jail time.

That’s why it’s so important for businesses in Romania to have a strong compliance program in place.

A good compliance program will help ensure that all employees are aware of the laws that apply to the business and the proper procedures for following those laws.

Lawyers in Romania

Lawyers in Romania: Navigating the Romanian Legal System

The Role of Lawyers in Romania is to provide legal representation to clients in court proceedings and offer legal advice on various legal matters such as contracts, property rights, family law, criminal law, and more.

Romania has a rich history and culture, and its legal system is no exception.

The modern legal system in Romania dates back to the mid-19th century and is based on French, Belgian, Italian, and German models.

As Romania is part of the EU, there is also heavy influence from EU law.

The judiciary of Romania is organized as a hierarchical system of courts.


The Role of Lawyers in Romania

The Romanian National Union of Bar Associations (UNBR) is the central body responsible for the profession of lawyers in Romania. It is a legal person of public interest comprising all Bar Associations in Romania.

The UNBR ensures qualified exercise of the right of defense, professional competence and discipline, and the protection of the dignity and honor of lawyers who are members of the union.

The legal profession in Romania is regulated by Law no. 51/1995 on the organization and practice of the lawyer’s profession.

Romanian lawyers are called “Avocati”. A large percentage of lawyers in Romania are sole practitioners and operate as one single lawyer.

A lawyer in Romania must be a member of the Romanian Bar Association (Uniunea Nationala a Barourilor din Romania). In Romania, you are qualified as an ~Avocati` after you pass your degree and exams.

The role of lawyers in the Romanian justice system is to provide legal representation to clients in court proceedings.

Lawyers also provide legal advice to clients on various legal matters such as contracts, property rights, family law, criminal law, and more.


Qualifications and Education for Lawyers in Romania:

Becoming a lawyer in Romania requires dedication and a rigorous educational journey.

Prospective lawyers must complete a comprehensive law school education, covering topics such as constitutional law, civil law, and criminal law.

Law schools and legal education in Romania are regulated by Law no. 238/2004 on the organization and functioning of higher education. There are currently 12 law schools in Romania that offer degrees in law.

After graduation, aspiring lawyers must pass the bar exam and obtain a license to practice law.

Moreover, continuing legal education programs ensure that lawyers stay up-to-date with the latest legal developments.


Responsibilities of Lawyers in Romania:

Lawyers in Romania fulfill a wide range of roles and responsibilities, catering to diverse legal needs.

They provide legal representation and advocacy, supporting clients throughout the legal process.

Whether it’s a civil dispute, criminal case, or family matter, lawyers stand by their clients, fighting for their rights and interests.

Moreover, lawyers offer legal advice and counseling, helping individuals and businesses understand their rights and obligations under the law.

They also play a crucial role in drafting and negotiating contracts, ensuring that agreements are legally sound and protect their clients’ interests.

In cases of disputes, lawyers are skilled in litigation and dispute resolution, using their legal expertise to seek fair resolutions.

In the corporate world, lawyers provide a range of legal services, including mergers and acquisitions, compliance, and contract review.

They also handle criminal defense and prosecution, tirelessly working to ensure justice is served.

When it comes to matters of family law and estate planning, lawyers offer guidance on divorce, child custody, and wills.

Additionally, lawyers specializing in intellectual property and technology law protect the rights of creators and innovators.


Ethical Standards and Professional Conduct:

Romanian Lawyers adhere to a strict code of ethics and professional conduct.

When it comes to the role of lawyers in Romania, maintaining ethical standards and professionalism is essential.

Confidentiality and attorney-client privilege are paramount, ensuring clients can trust their lawyers with sensitive information.

The Romanian Lawyer has a duty of loyalty and professional responsibility, acting in the best interests of his clients while avoiding conflicts of interest.

Upholding these ethical standards is vital for maintaining the integrity and credibility of the Romanian legal profession.


Challenges Faced by Lawyers in Romania:

Despite their pivotal role, lawyers in Romania face several challenges.

Backlogs of cases and court delays can hinder access to justice for many individuals.

Furthermore, marginalized communities may struggle to access legal services due to financial constraints or lack of awareness.

Overcoming these challenges requires ongoing legal reforms, increased transparency, and improved access to justice in Romania.


The Future of the Legal Profession in Romania:

Looking ahead, the legal profession in Romania is poised for transformation. Embracing technology and digitalization will streamline legal processes and improve efficiency.

Enhancing legal education and training programs will ensure lawyers are well-equipped to meet the evolving demands of the legal landscape.

Furthermore, strengthening the rule of law and judicial independence will foster trust and confidence in the legal system.

EU law has had a significant impact on the Romanian legal system. As a member of the EU, Romania is subject to EU law which has influenced many areas of Romanian law including competition law, consumer protection law, environmental law, and more.

As Romania continues to be a member of the EU, it will continue to be subject to EU law and its influence on the Romanian legal system will continue to grow.

Lawyers in Romania play a vital role in upholding justice, protecting rights, and guiding individuals and businesses through the complexities of the legal system.

With their expertise and dedication, they provide invaluable services that shape the course of legal proceedings.