Romanian Legal System

Romanian Law: An Overview of the Legal System in Romania

Romanian Law: An Overview of the Legal System in Romania

In the Romanian Law, the legal system in Romania is based on the civil law system.

The main sources of law are the Constitution, treaties, and legislation.

The Constitution of Romania is the supreme law of the country and it determines the structure of the government and the rights of the citizens.

The Romanian legal system is divided into four main branches: administrative law, civil law, criminal law, and constitutional law.

Administrative law deals with the relations between the state and the individuals.

Civil law deals with the relations between individuals.

Criminal law deals with crimes and punishment. Constitutional law deals with the interpretation of the Constitution.

The judiciary in Romania is independent of the executive and legislative branches of government.

The highest court in Romania is the Supreme Court, which consists of nine judges appointed by the President for a six-year term.

There are three types of courts in Romania: criminal courts, civil courts, and administrative courts.

Criminal courts deal with crimes punishable by imprisonment for more than one year.

Civil courts deal with disputes between individuals or legal entities.

Administrative courts deal with disputes between individuals and the state.

Constitutional Law in Romania

​If you are thinking about doing business in Romania, it is important to understand the country’s constitutional law.

This area of law governs the relationships between the state and individuals, as well as the rights and duties of Romanian citizens.

The Constitution of Romania is the supreme law of the country and it is the foundation of the legal system.

All other laws must be in line with the Constitution and any law that goes against it is void.

The Constitution guarantees equality before the law for all citizens, regardless of their race, ethnicity, religion, or gender.

It also protects the right to life, liberty, and security of the person.

Everyone has the right to freedom of expression, assembly, and association. Romania is a secular state and everyone is free to practice their religion.

The Constitution provides for a separation of powers between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.

The Constitution requires that the judiciary be independent from the other branches of government.

Judges are appointed by the President on the proposal of the Superior Council of Magistrates, a body that is itself appointed by Parliament.

Romanian lawyers must have a law degree from a Romanian university and must pass a bar exam in order to be licensed to practice law.

Foreign lawyers may be admitted to practice law in Romania if they have a law degree from a foreign university and pass a Romanian language proficiency exam.

Criminal Law in Romania

The Romanian criminal justice system is based on the continental law system, and its procedures are regulated by the Romanian Code of Criminal Procedure.

The main body of criminal law is codified in the Penal Code.

The Penal Code sets out the general principles of criminal law, as well as the specific offenses that are defined as crimes.

The Code of Criminal Procedure regulates the procedures that are to be followed in a criminal trial.

In Romania, there are two types of courts that hear criminal cases:

  • the Courts of First Instance and
  • the Courts of Appeal.

The Courts of First Instance are competent to hear cases involving less serious offenses, while the Courts of Appeal are competent to hear cases involving more serious offenses.

A criminal case is initiated by the Prosecution Office, which is responsible for investigating crimes and bringing charges against suspected criminals.

The Prosecution Office is headed by the Prosecutor General, who is appointed by the President of Romania.

Once a criminal case has been initiated, the suspected offender is entitled to a fair trial.

This includes the right to a public trial, the right to be represented by a Romanian lawyer, and the right to appeal the decision of the court.

The sentence that is imposed on a convicted offender depends on the severity of the offence. For less serious offences, the offender may be given a suspended sentence or a fine.

For more serious offences, the offender may be given a prison sentence.

In addition to the criminal penalties that can be imposed, offenders may also be required to pay compensation to the victims of their crimes.

This can be ordered by the court as part of the sentence, or it can be agreed to by the parties in a civil settlement.

Compensation may be ordered for physical or psychological injuries that have been suffered by the victim, as well as for financial losses that have been incurred.

In some cases, the court may also order the offender to pay restitution to the victim.

This is an order to return property that has been stolen or damaged as a result of the crime.

Civil Law in Romania

​If you are thinking of expanding your business into Romania, it is important to have a basic understanding of the Romanian civil law system.

This system is based on the German civil law system and shares many similarities with other civil law systems in Europe.

However, there are also some important differences that you should be aware of.

The Romanian civil law system is codified, which means that the majority of laws are written down in a single code.

The code is divided into a number of different sections, each dealing with a different area of law.

The most important section for businesses is the one dealing with contract law.

Overall, the Romanian civil law system is relatively favorable to businesses.

However, there are some important differences that you should be aware of before expanding your business into Romania.

Corporate Law in Romania

​Since Romania joined the European Union in 2007, the corporate law landscape has been rapidly evolving.

The overall regulatory framework is still in the process of being harmonized with EU standards and best practices.

This can be seen as both an opportunity and a challenge for businesses operating in Romania.

One of the key areas of corporate law in Romania is labor law.

The Romanian Labor Code sets forth the rules and regulations governing the employer-employee relationship.

Some of the key areas regulated by the Labor Code include hiring, wages, working hours, and termination of employment.

Another important area of corporate law in Romania is tax law.

Romania has a variety of taxes that businesses must comply with, ranging from income tax to value added tax (VAT). businesses must carefully navigate the Romanian tax system in order to avoid penalties and ensure compliance.

Last but not least, businesses operating in Romania must also comply with EU and Romanian competition law.

This area of law regulates anti-competitive practices such as cartels and monopolies. businesses operating in Romania must be aware of these rules in order to avoid fines and other penalties.

Overall, the corporate law landscape in Romania is still evolving.

However, businesses operating in Romania can take advantage of this by staying up-to-date on the latest legal developments and ensuring compliance with all applicable laws and regulations.

Tax Law in Romania

​In Romania, the tax law is complex and ever-changing, which can make it difficult for businesses to comply.

One area that is particularly confusing is the rules around foreign businesses.

If you are a foreign business with employees in Romania, you need to be aware of the various tax and social security obligations that you have.

This includes withholding taxes from your employees’ salaries and paying into the Romanian social security system.

Failure to comply with these obligations can result in heavy fines, so it is important to make sure you are up-to-date with the latest changes.

Keeping track of the constantly changing law can be a challenge, so it is a good idea to hire a specialist tax advisor to help you ensure compliance.

If you are an employee in Romania, you should be aware that your employer is required to withhold taxes from your salary.

These taxes go towards your social security contributions and income tax.

The amount of tax you pay will depend on your salary and where you live in Romania.

In general, the tax rates are lower than in many other countries, which makes Romania an attractive place to work for foreigners.

However, it is important to remember that you are still required to pay taxes on any income you earn in Romania, even if it is from a foreign source.

This includes things like interest from a bank account or dividends from stocks.

If you are self-employed in Romania, you are responsible for paying your own taxes and social security contributions.

The good news is that there are a number of deductions and exemptions that you can claim to reduce your tax liability.

Keeping track of all the different tax rules and regulations can be a challenge, but it is important to make sure you are compliant. Non-compliance can result in heavy fines, so it is always better to be safe than sorry.

If you are thinking of doing business in Romania, or are already doing business in Romania, make sure you are up-to-date with the latest tax law changes.

This way you can avoid any penalties and make sure you are complying with all the relevant rules and regulations.

Labor and Employment Law in Romania

The Romanian labor law system is based on the Constitution of Romania, international labor conventions, and domestic legislation.

The Constitution of Romania provides for the right to work, the right to choose a job, the right to just and favorable working conditions, the right to rest and leisure, and the right to protection against unemployment.

The Labor Code is the main source of Romanian labor law.

The Code regulates the relations between employers and employees, including hiring, wages, working hours, safety and health, and termination of employment.

The Code also establishes the rights and obligations of trade unions and employers’ organizations. Trade unions have the right to negotiate collective agreements with employers and to represent employees in disputes before labor courts.

Employers’ organizations have the right to represent employers in collective bargaining and to provide assistance and advice to employers.

The Ministry of Labor and Social Protection is the government body responsible for labor law enforcement. The Ministry has inspectors who investigate complaints of violations of labor law and can impose penalties on employers who violate the law.

The labor courts are responsible for resolving disputes between employees and employers.

The courts have the power to order employers to pay back wages, reinstate employees who have been wrongfully terminated, and impose other remedies.

Romanian employee may be employed under an individual labor contract or a collective labor contract.

  • Individual labor contracts are between an employer and an individual employee and are the most common type of contract.
  • Collective labor contracts are between an employer and a trade union and cover all employees of a particular company or sector.

Employees have the right to receive a written copy of their labor contract.

The contract must be in the Romanian language and must contain certain information, such as the names of the parties, the duration of the contract, the nature of the work, the place of work, the wage, and the working hours.

Employees can only be required to work overtime if it is provided for in their contract or if they give their consent.

Overtime work must be compensated at a rate of at least 1.5 times the regular wage.

Employees are entitled to paid annual leave of 20 days. Employees who have worked for more than 10 years are entitled to 30 days of annual leave.

Regulatory and Compliance Law in Romania

​Much like in any other country, businesses in Romania must comply with a variety of regulatory and compliance laws.

Depending on the type of business, there may be different laws that apply.

For example, businesses that deal with food must comply with food safety laws, while businesses that manufacture products must comply with product safety laws.

There are also general business laws that all businesses must comply with, such as labor laws, tax laws, and environmental laws.

Failure to comply with any of these laws can result in costly fines or even jail time.

That’s why it’s so important for businesses in Romania to have a strong compliance program in place.

A good compliance program will help ensure that all employees are aware of the laws that apply to the business and the proper procedures for following those laws.

Limited Liability Company in Romania

How to Set Up a Limited Liability Company in Romania


Set up a Limited Liability Company in Romania

The most common forms of companies in Romania are the Limited Liability Company, the Joint Stock Company and Branches.

The Limited Liability Company in Romania has:

  • The share capital is divided into equal shares and, according to Law no. 31/1990, it cannot be less than 1 RON.
  • A Limited Liability Company in Romania may have between 1 and 50 shareholders.
  • The shareholders are liable in the limit of the contribution to the share capital.

Documents requested by the Trade Register for the company formation are:

  • Proof of reservation of company name
  • Articles of incorporation for the new Romanian company
  • Excerpts issued by the Trade Register where the shareholders are incorporated- legal entities (if they are)
  • The identity document of the shareholders natural persons (ID, Passport)
  • Passport or ID of the future director of the Romanian company
  • The document attesting the right of use over the space with destination of registered office ( e.g. lease agreement, property) and the ownership property documents
  • standard application.

Taxation of LLC company in Romania 2023

The tax rates used for micro-company income tax are:

  • 1% for micro-companies with one or more employees.
  • 3% for micro-companies with no employees.

The standard corporate income tax rate is 16%. Taxpayers that are carrying on activities such as gambling and nightclubs are either subject to 5% rate of the revenue obtained from such activities or to 16% of the taxable profit, depending on which is higher.

Romanian micro company tax regime starting with the first fiscal year and will remain under this tax regime if it meets all of the following criteria:

  • The maximum threshold of annual turnover is EUR 500.000.
  • Income generated from consultancy and management activities is not more than 20% of the annual turnover;
  • It does not carry out any banking, insurance and reassurance, capital markets, gambling or upstream oil & gas activities;
  • The share capital must be held by entities other than the state or the local authorities.

Moreover, the Romanian company has to pay to the state the imposed social contributions (pensions, health, work contribution) and the income tax for each employee.

There are no citizenship or residency requirements in order to register a Limited Company in Romania.

Our team of Romanian Lawyers can assist you for the set up of a LLC in Romania and our team of Romanian accountants can take on the fiscal set up of your newly formatted company.


Contact us for more info in order to set up a Romanian Limited Liability Company.